Every day is a school day

There have been a number of professional learning events over the last few weeks that I’ve engaged with that have challenged my thinking. I’ve summarised a few of these within this blog post.

DiverseEd – World Book Day – Thursday 4th March 2021

“You can’t be what you can’t see.”

Hosted by Hannah Wilson, this event showcased diverse authors sharing their journey to get published and they talked about some of the barriers to getting their voices out there. I didn’t take many notes within the session as I found it really inspiring just to listen in. The common themes of courage and defeating imposter syndrome came through here. I don’t remember which panelist said it, but when asked about getting over the fear, they spoke about how important the message is. The message was too important for them not to share! I’m reading The Infinite Game by Simon Sinek at the moment, reading about organisations having a just cause which keeps its people going, these authors have a just cause. Karl Pupe shared the story of one of his students learning that he’d written a book and how proud this made him. It really highlighted the power of representation. Whilst I’ve really tried to ensure a diverse library in my class, Andrew Moffat made me reflect on what I’m doing with them. It’s not just about having the texts, it’s about the lessons and discussions that go along with them. I have used picture books, such as Counting on Katherine by Helaine Becker, to prompt discussion around aspirations for people of colour and the girls in my class, and regularly choose whole class novels which promote kindness and celebrating our differences, such as Wonder by R.J. Palacio, but I have more work to do in this area.

You can watch the recording of the event here.

NewEdLeaders – Saturday 6th March 2021

“Humans first, learners second. Humans first, professionals second.”

Mary Myatt

Whilst I’m probably not the intended audience for the event, I felt I had to attend because there were so many people I wanted to hear from! Hosted by Emma Turner and friends, the event was aimed (as the name suggests!) at new leaders within education, but as the saying goes “teachers are leaders of learning” so there were definitely a number of sessions I found inspiring. In her session “Curriculum: the good, the bad & the ugly”, Mary Myatt encouraged us to question why we are teaching what we are teaching and what specifically we want the children to learn, whilst also driving home the message that we are all humans first. I also loved Alison Kriel’s session where she talked about the “unmeasured curriculum”, which highlighted the importance of a strong health and wellbeing curriculum. She referred to meetings with large companies about the skills and competencies they were looking for in future employees, lots to consider with our Developing the Young Workforce work.

Unsurprisingly, I am really interested in professional learning and I have recently taken on a new role to develop this further within my school. With this in mind, I was looking forward to Tom Sherrington’s session, “Does your QA culture support Professional Learning?”. Tom shared the need for systems to support a professional learning culture, whilst highlighting the importance of teacher autonomy here. Teachers don’t need to attend CPD sessions that are irrelevant to them or their practice. We are fortunate, within Scotland, that a large part of our CLPL hours are self-directed. Whilst I know there are times when whole-staff / authority-wide professional learning is necessary and beneficial, identifying our own areas for development and actively seeking out learning opportunities, with the support of our SLT, is really empowering. This session then led on to Tom, Emma, and Kathryn Morgan discussing distributed leadership and delegation. I found myself reflecting both on how my own SLT practises this within our school, where we are trusted to develop our practice and work on collegiate projects, and also on how I work with my stage partner, who is an NQT. I forget who stated that giving teachers’ responsibility with parameters makes this work better. It really is powerful to know that your leader trusts you to do something, but it definitely helps to know what the parameters or expectations are before you start. I find delegation difficult, particularly in areas where I feel passionate. Reading Dare to Lead by Brené Brown has also prompted me to reflect on this and I’m working to develop here.

You can watch the recording of this event here.

WomenEd Book Club – Sunday 7th March 2021

“We need different voices to make a great team, with similar values but different experiences”

Dr Melissa McCauley

Hosted by Kiran Sunray, this @WomenEdBookClub event featured the authors of the second WomenEd book, Being 10% Braver, sharing their stories. When the second book came out, I decided I couldn’t buy it until I’d finished the first one… I ordered it as soon as this event ended.

Similar to the DiverseEd event, I didn’t take many notes during this event, preferring to listen and reflect on points that chimed with my own experiences and those I’d never considered before. Many of the panelists talked about confidence, imposter syndrome, the power of mentorship, authenticity, mental health. There really was a lot to reflect on. I found Ruth Golding’s contributions about ableism and the experiences of people with disabilities really thought-provoking. She recommended Alice Wong’s book, Disability Visibility, for those who wanted to learn more which I’m now looking forward to reading. I’ve heard Penny Rabiger speak at a few different (virtual) events and I loved what she said about being a catalyst for change. “It’s not all about you. Get the ball in the air, then pass it.”

I felt really inspired by the whole event, especially after hearing Bukky Yusuf’s call to action, “Okay, you’ve read the book. Now what?”. I’m excited to find out.

You can watch the recording of this event here.

Northern Alliance Innovative Approaches to Curriculum Delivery – Thursday 11th March 2021

A series of sessions facilitated by Audrey Buchanan, this professional learning group offers an opportunity for practitioners across the Northern Alliance to connect and share best practice. The focus of this series is retrieval practice and how we can utilise digital technologies to embed retrieval practice in our teaching. Having recently attended an online event by Kate Jones (recording available here), I have really enjoyed being able to discuss retrieval practice theory and strategies with teachers across different stages. I left this session inspired to start a new practitioner enquiry when we return to school. My plan has also been informed by a collegiate professional learning discussion my colleague facilitated a few days earlier, where a number of us met to discuss the teaching of maths online and what we would like to continue when we return to the physical classroom. This is a further example of the distributed leaderships and opportunities afforded to teachers in my school. I will write more about this enquiry in a separate blog post.

WomenEd Scotland – Connect and Communicate – Saturday 13th March 2021

Hosted by Lena Carter, Christine Couser, and Parm Plummer, this session was more of a networking event than strictly professional learning but I just had to include it in this blog post as it was such a great start to the weekend! The hosts shared some of the history of WomenEd Scotland and then we went into breakout rooms to share thoughts around the topic of women in leadership in education. It was great to get a chance to hear from educators that I follow or have engaged with on Twitter and I really enjoyed the format of the breakout rooms. They followed the #SpacesForListening structure which was a really powerful way of ensuring everyone’s voices were heard:

There were a number of common themes that came out of all the breakout rooms and I’ve pulled some of those together in this word cloud:

As we return to our physical classrooms, this week, I am looking forward to seeing my class and my colleagues in person. Reflecting on the last few months, I’m pleased I have developed some positive habits (with my one word for 2021 in mind) such as reading, painting, regular baths, long walks in the park. I’ve been fortunate to engage with a number of professional learning events, podcasts, and ongoing dialogue with education practitioners across the world. I’m hopeful and excited to see what the next few weeks will bring.

I’d love to hear from you if you also attended some of the events I’ve referred to above or if you have recommendations of other events / reading material / podcasts you have enjoyed. Comment below or follow me on Twitter, @ClareAnnePirie.

Whole Class Feedback

I’ve been sitting on this blog post for a while, wanting to have “completed” this enquiry before I share. However, remote teaching has put a bit of a spanner in the works so I need to consider how I’m going to pivot the enquiry to fit into current circumstances. Professor Kate Wall, from the University of Strathclyde, tweeted this a few weeks ago:

I think this rings true with a lot of us. This has been playing on my mind, the reasons I started this enquiry are still there but the possible solutions have had to change. Therefore, think of this as a mid-enquiry update – a work in progress!

Why Whole Class Feedback?

I’ve been interested in Whole Class Feedback (WCF) since my probation year, particularly as a way to reduce workload and increase attainment in taught writing lessons. I’ve read about it, talked about it, retweeted many examples of it but never really tried it in my own practice. Why not?

In my probation year, I thought about focusing on Whole Class Feedback for my practitioner enquiry project but I decided it wasn’t suitable for my P2 class because they needed more personalised feedback. Last year in P6, I considered it again but knew my more-experienced stage partner valued two-stars and a wish. I trust her judgement and experience so I tried a similar approach. We used success criteria slips with traffic-lights for self-assessment, peer-assessment and teacher assessment plus wrote two stars and a wish on all (most!) pieces of writing. As an early career teacher with a tendency to overthink how I word written feedback, I found this very time consuming. When we moved to remote teaching, I tried to replicate it but quickly dropped the teacher traffic-light and gave verbal feedback using Read&Write by Texthelp.

This year, I’m enjoying being in the same stage for a second year and feel this has given me more confidence to try another approach. Also, when we were teaching in-person, restrictions meant we had to quarantine jotters for 72 hours before marking and then another 72 hours before returning to the learners. It seemed like the perfect time to find another way!

In term 1 of this school year, the children self-assessed their work and then left their jotters open on their desks while they went for break so I could pop around and take a photograph of their writing with an iPad. This way, I could read through their work so I knew what we, as a class, needed to work on. I had attempted to add these photographs to an individual Google Slides deck for each child with two stars and a wish. I also intended to share these slides with parents (as parental engagement forms part of my Google Innovator Project). Unsurprisingly, this approach became overly time consuming and with only one Chromebooks slot per week, it wasn’t the most straightforward way of sharing the feedback with the learners.

On the first day of the October break, my Depute Head Teacher (and former probation mentor) forwarded a Tweet to me all about Whole Class Feedback. It was like alarm bells going off and my husband wondered why I was hyper all of a sudden. This is what it feels like when you discover your itch (as the Education Scotland Teacher Leadership Programme (TLP) has taught me)! And so began my next practitioner enquiry…

Ask the kids…

Despite the effectiveness of surveys often being up for discussion, I decided it was a good way to quickly gauge what the learners thought. I wondered if they had noticed the changes I’d made to the way their writing was marked. I asked them what feedback they had received before, and what they thought was the best:

Forms response chart. Question title: Before COVID restrictions, what feedback did your teachers give you in your jotters? (Think about P4 and P5). Number of responses: 28 responses.
Forms response chart. Question title: Which feedback do you think is most helpful for you to improve your writing?. Number of responses: 28 responses.

Overwhelmingly, they shared that they felt that written comments, spelling corrections, and success criteria slips were most helpful to them, with most (75%) stating that they used written comments to improve their work. More interesting though, were some of their responses to open questions about how their teachers give feedback and how their teachers can help them improve:

QuestionSample of Learners’ Responses
What does the teacher’s feedback tell you?– That I am good at writing
– My teacher’s feedback tells me that I can do better
– Usually I make a few mistakes but it is usually fine. It is nice to see what my teacher thinks.
– What I have done well or improved in a piece of work and what I need to improve on.
– It tells me what I need to improve on and what I can do to make my work more interesting.
– To practise some spelling words
– That I need to work on what I have done wrong and what I need to improve
– If i did it right or wrong
– What i did well, what I need to work on and, if got everything right, a  nice and supportive message
– It tells me one or more things I did well, and what I can improve on.
– It tells you how to improve and what you have done well.
– What you need to correct and what you have done well.
What comments are most helpful?– The most helpful comments are the ones that say well done but try and do this better.
– Ones that tell me how to improve
– When my teacher tells me what I did wrong.
– Comments that explain more about things I have accomplished and things that I need to work on.
– Amazing!!! Keep up the good work.
– The most helpful comments is spelling corrections
– The comments that are most helpful are the spelling comments and the ones where you tell me how I can improve.
– Comments that are clear
– The correction comments are most helpful.
– The comments that are most helpful are positive and negative because they tell you what you are doing well at and what you need to improve.
– Ones that encourage you as well as help to correct your work
– Where I have made mistakes and where I can improve.
– Ones I know that I need to improve on
What comments are least helpful?– Comments that say that your work is good or great
– The least helpful are Well done!
– The ones that tell me to improve but do not say how
– “Take your time”
– When my teacher says I made a mistake but doesn’t tell me what I did wrong.
– Comments that just say things like: Well done! or Very good!
– Check on your spelling”
– I think the highlight ones are the least helpful
– I think the highlighting words.
– “Well done” comments.
– The least helpful comments are when they say:Good job or well done
– Try again
– Ones that only tell you what you haven’t done and don’t include what you have done.

As teachers, we have attended training looking at the need for feedback to be “kind, specific, and helpful” (thank you, Osiris) but I was still surprised to hear it so clearly stated by several children. There was no prompting on this from me but many of them stated that the least helpful comments are “well done” – they want the specifics! I did also ask them if they think it’s helpful to learn from other people’s mistakes to gauge how they were going to engage with WCF. The results of this are more interesting if you know the learners and their personalities.

What did I do?

Shortly after my DHT shared that tweet, I attended a CPD session by Kaley Riley focusing on WCF, mainly in secondary settings. Despite this, the session gave me lots of practical ideas and Kaley shared links to lots of research on the topic. She has also blogged about her experience of WCF and shared a template here

Inspired by this event, I created a WCF template that I could use with my primary learners during taught writing lessons, somewhere I could jot down common errors or themes to be shared with learners allowing them to learn from each other. I also used this as an opportunity to share “star sentences” I’d noticed within their writing. 

Template from Slidesgo

Recognising the Education Endowment Foundation’s 2016 findings in “A Marked Improvement?” that “pupils are unlikely to benefit from marking unless some time is set aside to enable pupils to consider and respond to marking”, I decided to rejig the timetable slightly.

Throughout term 2, we effectively had three writing lessons:

  • Tuesdays – I shared the WCF slides with the children, going through what had gone well in the previous week’s writing, some “star sentences” and gave some children a shout out for going the extra mile in their writing. Then we spoke about what would make our writing even better, including some common spelling errors. The class then received their previous piece of writing back and rewrote one of the paragraphs focusing on the areas we had discussed. To finish, they wrote a personal target or focus area to carry into their next piece of writing.
  • Wednesday – Planning the next piece of writing.
  • Thursday – Writing out what we had planned the previous day. We started doing this on Chromebooks, making use of the Read&Write toolbar from TextHelp. This also meant I was able to “drop in” to their work during the lesson and give them in-the-moment feedback.

What happened?

This is the part of practitioner enquiry that I think puts educators off sharing what they have done. It is difficult to quantify the impact of this, particularly given the short time scale. However, I learned during the TLP, that ‘data’ doesn’t necessarily mean numbers and attainment scores, teacher observations are a valuable tool when reflecting on an enquiry.

As a teacher, I felt the children benefited from having this “feedback” lesson as it helped to tackle the “I’m done” sort of approach to learning, along with constantly referring to the need to edit our work and try to improve it. (This photo of Obama’s healthcare speech also helped with this!) Working within a reduced recovery curriculum allowed for this “extra” lesson, I’m not sure how I would have fit this in if we were also teaching the full curriculum. 

I also feel that the referring back to the previous week’s learning helped the children to recognise that improving their writing was an ongoing process. The success criteria slips were edited so the bottom box was there for them to fill in their individual target to help them remember to focus on an area they had highlighted from the previous week.

Whole Class Feedback, along with using rubrics in Google Classroom, was a massive timesaver for me, and my stage partner also started using this approach. The children were still getting written comments every second week as I was able to write in the comments as they were writing.

Next steps

I had planned to continue this enquiry for the whole school year and hold focus group discussions with the children to find out what they thought about Whole Class Feedback. However, we are currently back to online teaching and I’ve found that under these circumstances, the learners need individual feedback for their writing. I am using Mote to give verbal comments and continuing to use Google Classroom rubrics linked to our success criteria. However, I am still giving Whole Class Feedback for other pieces of work.

It’s still unclear how long we will be working online for so I will revisit this as things become clearer. I’d be interested to hear from anyone who has made Whole Class Feedback work in a primary setting though! Any tips, please share.

Further Reading

Seven Sparks

Things that have sparked joy’ for me, this week:

  • Walking in the park on a frosty, sunny day.
  • Thinking about our new home as we pack up our belongings to move.
  • Several supportive conversations with colleagues and SLT.
  • Launching a new Professional Learning site for my colleagues.
  • Pitching a Family Learning event idea to my HT then presenting at the Parent Council meeting that evening. Looking forward to this taking place this week.
  • Candles. (This is my current favourite!)
  • Tea. Always tea.

TLP Enquiry – First Draft

I was recently asked to speak to current Aberdeen City probationers about my experience of practitioner enquiry. I spoke about my PGDE enquiry and my own probationer PEAR project, as well as telling them about my initial plans for this enquiry. I was very nervous before presenting but received positive feedback and I’m proud I did something outside my comfort zone.

Charlaine Simpson, from the GTCS, was also speaking at that event and her presentation was really interesting for me as I reflected on my TLP enquiry plans. She shared this process wheel which has helped me to think about the steps involved in practitioner enquiry:

GTCS PL Wheel

At the SCEL TLP recall event next week, we will have time to discuss our enquiry questions and plans but we’ve been asked to post a first draft prior to the event. I have shared my plan below, using Canva.

FOCUS: Cooperative Learning and Coding

QUESTION: To what extent does the use of cooperative learning groups for a coding project impact social skills in a P6 class?

Adapted from a blog post, first published: 3rd January 2020. Available at: https://blogs.glowscotland.org.uk/glowblogs/mrsclarepirie/2020/01/03/myenquiryplanfirstdraft/

What is already known?

I’ve decided to introduce cooperative learning groups to my P6 class as the focus for my practitioner enquiry. Many of the other areas I discussed in my previous post are things I wanted to make changes to this term, rather than waiting until January after the recall date.

Having attended cooperative learning training during my probationer year, last year, I used some of the strategies with my P2 class, but didn’t set up formal groups or fully embed its use properly. I feel this would benefit my current P6 class but haven’t yet set up groups. As I’m also passionate about the use of digital technology in the classroom, I was excited to learn that the Aberdeenshire Council GamesCon festival had been extended to all Northern Alliance P6 and P7s. This requires children to work in groups to design a game using Scratch. I intend to introduce cooperative learning groups which the children will eventually work in to enter the Games Con competition.

My hope is that the formal groups and structured sessions will allow some of the more academically able children to develop their social emotional skills, particularly in mixed ability groups. One of the five basic elements of cooperative learning is positive interdependence. Johnson and Johnson (2017) defines this as students believing “that they are linked with others in a way that one cannot succeed unless the other members of the group succeed (and vice versa), that is, they “sink or swim together.” I’d like to focus on this particular area to see if this helps in other areas of the curriculum (and the general health and wellbeing of the class!).

There is a lot of research into cooperative learning, this is just two pieces that I have read recently:

JOHNSON, D. W., and JOHNSON,  R. T., (2017) ‘Cooperative Learning’  Innovacion Educacion, Available at: https://2017.congresoinnovacion.educa.aragon.es/documents/48/David_Johnson.pdf (Accessed: 8 December 2019).

Johnson and Johnson have done a lot of research into cooperative learning and, in this 2017 piece, they summarise their own research and developments from others in the field of education. This is a helpful summary and reminder of what I learned on the training course, last year. I found the part where they state that “student-student interaction may be structured in school classes: competitively, individualistically, and cooperatively” struck a chord with me in my current class. Some of the children can be unkind (perhaps without meaning to be) in how they talk about their achievements in front of others. A recent pair work task showed that some of the children were proud that they’d managed to complete the task (building a gingerbread house!) on their own, missing the point a bit! Perhaps the mix of competitve, individual, and cooperative tasks needs to be more explicitly explained so the children better understand what is being asked of them in each lesson.

POPA, C. and POP, M. (2019) ‘Cooperative Learning – Applications for Children from Primary School’, Journal Plus Education / Educatia Plus, 22(1), pp. 78–87. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eue&AN=137392983&site=ehost-live&scope=site (Accessed: 8 December 2019).

This journal article details research in Romania which found that teaching 4th grade children using cooperative learning strategies reduced their dependence on teachers, developing their own independence and ability to work together in groups to find solutions rather than seeking out help from their teacher. We often speak in P6 about developing the children’s independence as we prepare for moving to secondary school. As a result, this could also benefit my class.

There are two P6 classes at my school and I work closely with my stage partner. I will be introducing Games Con to the other P6 class as well. It may be an interesting comparison for me to use cooperative learning strategies with my own class, but not structure it in the same way with the other class and see if that has any effect, how to measure that is a different blog post entirely!

First published: 8th December 2019. Available at: https://blogs.glowscotland.org.uk/glowblogs/mrsclarepirie/2019/12/08/what-is-already-known/

Possible Enquiry Areas

Still early in my teaching career, I haven’t yet narrowed down to particular areas of interest but seem to be enthusiastic about too many things! I struggled to decide on a focus area for my probationer practitioner enquiry and seem to be repeating myself with the TLP. Something I find difficult is honing in on who the enquiry should be for. Is it for me to develop as a professional? Is it for the specific learners in my class? Or is it something that could potentially have a whole school application? I often get carried away trying to achieve the latter.

In order to try and narrow things down, I’ve tried to summarise my thinking below:

Social Emotional Learning / Health and Wellbeing

I’d like to do some sort of enquiry based in Health and Wellbeing or Social Emotional Learning, but I’m not sure what yet. Here are some thoughts:

  • Cooperative learning groups – Having attended the Cooperative Learning training last year, I implemented some of the whole-class strategies with my P2s. I’d like to take this on fully by embedding these strategies, as well as specific groups, in P6. I’m interested to see the impact this has on the children’s social skills, ability to work with those outwith their friendship groups, and their resilience in every day lessons.
  • Morning Greetings – I’ve already implemented this but could do more qualitative research on the children’s perspectives, etc.
  • Impact of Emotional Check Ins – I experienced this on placement where the class teacher followed the Jenny Mosley Circle Time approach, also utilising Bubble Time as a way of developing relationships with the children and ensuring they feel safe. This is something I plan on introducing anyway so my question is really whether to focus my enquiry on it.
  • “Feeling diaries” – this was something I heard about at the Portobello Learning Festival where a teacher shared some of the strategies she had used to build kindness in her classroom. The children spent a few minutes each morning writing how they were feeling and why. I introduced it with my P2s last year and noticed a huge difference in my understanding of how the children were feeling, their behaviours and the impact this had on their learning – I wonder whether it will be beneficial in P6.

Digital Technology / Leadership of Learning / Pupil Voice

During my probation year, I was involved in a number of activities to boost the digital teaching and learning in the school, which I would like to continue this year. Some ideas for enquiry related to digital technologies:

  • Pupil Voice – I have regularly utilised digital technology to collect the children’s views on learning and classroom culture. I’d like to look into different ways of doing this and seeing what impact it has on the children’s attainment and ownership over their learning. Could be linked to learning journeys??
  • Student Blogging (linked to Learning Journeys?) – since reading The Innovator’s Mindset by George Couros, I’ve really wanted to try out student blogging. My class previously haven’t had a lot of technology time so I’d like to tap into their enthusiasm for it, possibly to develop their writing. I could start them off blogging with different prompts – there are some great ideas on this blog post. 
  • TextHelp Read&Write – I have introduced this for the children who struggle with spelling as well as the children who struggle to focus – could look into the impact of this.
  • Coding / Computing Science – this is something that I am championing in school, but if I could show a cross-curricular benefit to other teachers it might help with the case for fitting it into an already packed week – I could use weekly lessons to develop computational thinking skills and see if there is any impact in “core” lessons??
  • Parental Engagement – this could be very broad, looking at how digital tools improve whole school parental engagement, which I’ve had a few interesting conversations with my HT about, or could be more specific to EAL parents.
  • This year, I am running the Digital Leaders with a colleague, and am starting a junior STEM club. It’d be interesting to look into the impact on these children of being in these groups.

Assessment

Both my enquiry during the PGDE and the practitioner enquiry completed during my probation year were focused on assessment strategies within writing, both within Early (into First) Level.

Since starting this year in P6, there are so many things that are different from my last year in P2, but the amount of marking came as a shock. I’d like to build on what I learned in my previous two enquiries by looking into assessment of writing within Second Level. I have seen a lot on Twitter about the benefits of Whole Class Feedback and would like to try this out in my own class. This term, weekly writing lessons were self assessed, peer assessed, and teacher assessed using a Success Criteria grid which was traffic-lighted. Each piece then had 2 stars and a wish written by me. This is in line with my stage partner’s approach. If this was chosen as an enquiry, I could look to rotate groups each week and introduce one-to-one conferencing (like I did in P2), gradually moving to Whole Class Feedback. I’d need to read more about this, but I’d like to look into the benefits to the children’s learning compared with teacher time spent writing in jotters.

Adapted from a blog post, first published: 21st October 2019. Available at: https://blogs.glowscotland.org.uk/glowblogs/mrsclarepirie/2019/10/21/exploring-my-itch/

What does Teacher Leadership mean to me?

Teacher leadership, for me, is about taking responsibility for my own professional learning  and reflecting on how I can improve my practice. It involves researching and implementing ideas, and evaluating their impact. It will help me to develop the confidence, early in my teaching career, to make changes in my classroom to impact on my learners. I hope to be able to share what I learn through the TLP with my colleagues in working groups and other informal discussions with colleagues. I hope to explore areas of my practice that I could potentially take to Masters level study.

(Reflections and photo from the SCEL TLP Launch Event at the University of Aberdeen, August 2019).

First published: 26th August 2019. Available at: https://blogs.glowscotland.org.uk/glowblogs/mrsclarepirie/2019/08/26/what-teacher-leadership-means-to-me/

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